Surface Mixed Layer at Submesoscales (SMILES)
The purpose of the SMILES (Surface Mixed Evolution at Submesoscales) Project is to identify the crucial role of submesoscales, in influencing the structure and properties of the upper ocean and thereby the transformation of surface water masses within the Southern Ocean. Submesoscales are flows with spatial scales of 1-10 km that occur within the upper ocean where communication and exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere occurs.
Previously considered unimportant to climate-scale studies due to their small scale and the presumed insignificance of their dynamics, recent evidence from high resolution regional models and observational studies is now emerging which suggests that submesoscales are actually widespread throughout the upper ocean and play a key role within climate dynamics due to their ability to rapidly restratify the upper ocean and reduce buoyancy loss from the ocean to the atmosphere.
The impact of such a process is particularly important to the surface transformation of water masses such as Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW), which is an important component of the Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC) that redistributes heat, freshwater and tracers around the globe. Within the MOC, dense water masses such as SAMW are formed and transformed at high latitudes by surface processes before being subducted into the ocean interior. The properties of the subducted water masses and the tracers and dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide contained within them are vitally important to the global climate and geochemical cycles as these water masses remain out of contact with the surface over decennial to centennial timescales.